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[Download] Simplertrading – Forex Freedom: Master the Largest Market in the World With Raghee Horner ( ELITE PACKAGE ) - 99.97$

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Urban Forex – Mastering Price Action 2.0 Download

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[Download] Torero Traders School – Forex Trading MasterClass

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Short Guide on how to Build , well anything . 1) Download Textures Unlimited 2) Download B9-PWings-Fork Master This has the TU cfg pre -installed 3) Download TU Stock Recolour 4)Download TU pWings Recolour 5)Download Procedual Parts 6)Look on the KSP Forum for links . 7)Build something stupid submitted by Significant_Penguin to KerbalSpaceProgram [link] [comments]

Binomo Review 2022

Binomo Review 2022
The financial market is flourishing with young traders investing in financial markets. The change in the market scenario is also bringing in technological advancement.
Several brokers are coming up to support traders and offer the best trading services. Binomo is one of the brokers providing the best trading features and tools. To learn more about the broker, we have a brief Binomo review.
The review will guide traders to understand brokers and how it works to serve traders online.
Binomo
What is Binomo?
Binomo is an Indian broker offering its trading services. It is a legitimate trading platform with proper regulations and security for traders.
The broker caters to more than 113 countries.
However, it is prevalent in India, Brazil, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Turkey.
The exchange was introduced in 2014 under the ownership of the Dolphin corporation. The platform has more than 9 lakh active traders and 30,000,000 successful weekly trades.

Is Binomo safe?

Binomo is a safe trading platform with the International Financial Commission (IFC) regulation. The authority looks after its trading services and ensures a secure trading environment.
Thousands of traders use the platform for advanced trading services. Also, the broker is categorising as A member of the regulatory body. Therefore, the broker works according to industry standards to offer the best possible trading.
In addition, client risks come under the insurance of Binomo of $20,000 to protect in disputes.

How to start trading at Binomo?

Traders can easily register and be a user of Binomo broker services. Here we have the process of how they can trade with the trading platform:

Registration

The first step to begin investing with Binomo is by getting registration. Traders can register easily with Binomo. By providing basic details such as name, number, address, email id, and payment method, traders can register on the platform.
Next, they must get the broker's validation to access the platform.

Demo Trading

Binomo also provides traders with the feature of actual and reel trading. In addition, traders can use a demo account to practise trading with virtual funds.
They can experience real market investments and use strategies, tools, and other facilities.
The broker offers $1000 as a virtual currency to invest in assets. Thus, an excellent way to learn to trade for beginners in the market.
Traders learn without actual investment and are familiar with the financial world.

Real-Time Trading

Binomo is a straightforward and less expensive platform. Traders can begin trading with a minimum deposit of $10. In addition, it allows traders to place orders at $1. Traders can select the asset and use market trends, indicators, and tools to analyse the market.
Next, they can open their position and keep analysing to find the best opportunities.

Withdrawals

Like deposits, the withdrawals at Binomo are simple. Therefore, traders can make quick and easy withdrawals. However, the platform requires traders to cross a specific limit of trades to free withdrawals.
A trader having below-the-limit withdrawals pays 10% fees. Also, it requires the information in support of the account to be proper and complete. Traders with incomplete and wrong information cannot access deposits and withdrawals.
The broker provides the withdrawal amount within three working days from the withdrawal request.
The payment method that traders can use are:
  • Visa
  • MasterCard
  • Neteller
  • Jeton

Binomo Trading App

Binomo is gaining popularity with time which calls for having a trading app to make access easy. Traders can download and install the app on their mobile devices to trade anytime and anywhere.
The platform works for iOS and Android mobile devices. Traders can get notifications and alerts and monitor trade with the app. Also, they can perform several other advanced features.

Conclusion

Binomo review is a short introduction to the trading platform. It gives brief details on the broker's history and is safe for traders. Besides, traders can know how they can begin trading with Binomo.
Simple registration to open an account and deposit funds. Traders get to trade in the market. Also, they can use a demo account to practise and a trading app to trade anywhere.
Overall a complete package for traders to get support from the broker and invest easily.
submitted by ella4637 to forex_learnling [link] [comments]

Download Urban Forex Mastering Price Action

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your opinion on this video and tumbnail.

your opinion on this video and tumbnail.

https://preview.redd.it/vdbet0msd82a1.png?width=1325&format=png&auto=webp&s=971a8c84355681441a5c3b701bea13f7962935b5
I saw a video in youtube channel getsetflyfact on how idonesia became a muslim and i was totally disspointed from him he is completely biased in his video and only talked about sati system which was not common in Chola empire as the prevalent system there was Devdasi System ,which was done by own will and not enforced on people, and he never told that how Malacca sultanate forced people of Indonesia to convert to Islam. And we also see there is no caste system and any stuff like that in indoansian Hindus predominantly , Balinese Hindus. We see soo many beautiful hindu monuments and temples there but I don't know where the hell he took all this information of people living in poverty at the time of hindu kingdoms.
Fun fact : Today ,Most indoansian are muslims but they too follow very much hindu culture in their day to day life , and they also keep their names from Hindu Legends ,for example - President Sukarno and his daughter Meghawati Sukarnoputri etc.
But we see that Indian muslims surrounding in hindu people never want to assimilate in indian culture and they keep their names of Arabic origin too and never took proud on their real ancestor identity . If today they are muslims , it's their choice ,but they should also respect their old beliefs and traditions like Indonasian Muslims.
here is full link of the video on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkoV4fXKris
submitted by Easy-Improvement-598 to Sham_Sharma_Show [link] [comments]

The FED is not the final boss... not even close

The FED is not the final boss... not even close
u/Maniquoone posted a Tweet yesterday (now removed?) about a 'central banker' and their ambitions for CBDCs. It's vital to highlight and discuss this content, but the title for this individual is far too generic. With the popularity of that post, I'd like to strike while the iron is hot and expand on who this person is and the organization for which he works.
His name is Agustín Carstens, and he's the current General Manager of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the organization which I believe is the final boss in this saga.
---

It's a shit hill, Rand

Just like how shit flows downhill, debt fails upwards. For example, if you default on your mortgage and flee to Mexico figure of speech, your bank would take your house but still own the debt you left behind. While obviously oversimplified, this is a crucial idea to understand and needs to be applied at the highest level, the MOASS level, once financial whales start to get harpooned.
The DD has outlined the (also oversimplified) order of operations for cascading defaults in US markets as basically this;
retail < hedge funds < banks < prime brokers < DTCC < FED
I believe this is incomplete.
Let's recap the last two quickly;

The DTCC

The Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC) is an American financial services company founded in 1999 that provides clearing and settlement services for the financial markets. When the DTCC was established in 1999, it combined the functions of the Depository Trust Company (DTC) and the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC).
The DTC, NSCC and FICC are all subsidiaries of the DTCC, but they're all the same entity.
https://preview.redd.it/34bpoa5xhz2a1.jpg?width=1719&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b7dfda2e325d0594d413cdee8e39acdc6613dfb9
The DTCC is the holding company for registered clearing agency and non-clearing agency subsidiaries. And it holds 6.9 metric fucktons of stuff;
2016 - $36B, 2017 - $34.2B
2018 - $47.9B, 2019 - $52.1B
2020 - $74.1B, 2021 - $74B
Fun fact - the DTCC went from owning assets worth 0.272% of all M2 USD in circulation in 2016 ($36B 2016 summary assets/$13.2T M2 Dec 2016), to owning assets worth 0.344% of all M2 USD in circulation in 2021 ($74B 2021 summary assets/$21.5T M2 Dec 2021).
In 2021 The DTCC reported an official total revenue of $2.054 billion, and a total value of securities processed at $2.37 quadrillion. That's $2,370,000,000,000,000.00!
The DTCC’s user-owners include Citigroup, BNP Paribas, JP Morgan, State Street, UBS, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Virtu, Barclays, BNY Mellon, Bank of America.

The FED

The Federal Reserve's (FED) primary responsibility is to keep the economy stable by managing the supply of money in circulation. nice job, fuckos The FED monitors financial system risks and engages domestically and internationally to help ensure the system supports a healthy economy for U.S. households, communities, and businesses.
The Treasury manages all of the money coming into the government and paid out by it.
"M2 Money" is a measure of the U.S. money stock that includes M1 (currency and coins held by the non-bank public, checkable deposits, and travelers' checks) plus savings deposits (including money market deposit accounts), small time deposits under $100,000, and shares in retail money market mutual funds.
https://preview.redd.it/gu1vrmebiz2a1.png?width=610&format=png&auto=webp&s=f105df39a93f1c63e31137de3a872c51715b3b9e
M2 Supply
There are 12 individual Federal Reserve Banks, all of which have stock that is not freely transferrable, pay dividends and are held by private banks.
https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/structure-federal-reserve-system.htm
The FED was created by Congress, and for national banks membership and FED stock ownership is mandatory. The FOMC is under majority conrol by the federally appointed Board of Governors.
https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/structure-federal-reserve-system.htm
The FED currently has $8.621 trillion in total assets;
https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/bst_recenttrends.htm
US Reserves Assets currently total $232 billion.
https://preview.redd.it/sebr6gtliz2a1.png?width=1152&format=png&auto=webp&s=6cdf4530370fe6c698ee647523931dfe96785d81
Note the spike in "speacial drawing rights", highlighted details in footnote #2. There was a massive spike in 2021 with the increase in money supply at this time.

SO...

The FED has significantly more assets than the DTCC, makes sense, this is not new information, but what makes them so much more powerful and infleuntial is their ability to control the USD supply. Plain and simple.
Remember this.

Augstin Carstens

Wiki summary;
  • In the mid-1980s Carstens rejoined the Bank of Mexico. Before turning thirty he was appointed treasurer, effectively taking charge of the national reserves.
  • Rising through the ranks in the early 1990s, he was appointed chief of staff of chairman Miguel Mancera, and served as Director General of Economic Research at the end of the 1990s, in charge of designing the Bank's economic policy
  • After many years at the Bank of Mexico, Carstens took a position at the IMF and served as the deputy managing director from 1 August 2003 to 16 October 2006
  • Carstens left the IMF to coordinate the economic policy program of Felipe Calderón, then president-elect of Mexico, who appointed him as secretary of finance shortly after the election was validated.
  • On 26 March 2007, Carstens was additionally appointed new chairman of the joint World Bank/IMF Development Committee, a position customarily occupied by a developing country finance minister.
  • As secretary, Carstens took the unconventional decision to hedge Mexico's oil earnings for 2009 against possible price falls, leading to an $8 billion profit for the country.
  • Carstens was nominated to the Bank of Mexico on 9 December 2009 by President Felipe Calderón, replacing 12-year veteran Guillermo Ortiz, who reduced inflation from double digits to 4 percent by the end of 2009. He was confirmed by the Senate on 15 December 2009 with 81 votes in favor and 19 votes against.
https://preview.redd.it/c8dt3smoiz2a1.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a2b4e365173e4d5550669f7486710b1fbfd96ec9
From an interview on June 25, 2018;
Q: Don't you think it's a positive side effect that Bitcoin has got many young people thinking about money, money creation and the financial system?
A: Glance back into the past and you will see that creating gold or money from nothing has been a regular obsession. It never worked. Even the great physicist Isaac Newton was at one point in his life obsessed by alchemy and the idea of making gold. He was very successful in a number of fields, but in this one he failed. Newton ended up as head of the British Mint. Why? Because he could detect at once if a coin was counterfeit. After he failed in his attempt to make gold, he switched sides and sent counterfeiters to prison. So my message to young people would be: Stop trying to create money!
A) literally not the point, nice deflection, and 2) "Don't do that! It's bad! Remember that one guy! It didn't work!"

Q: A well respected book about the BIS [The Tower of Basel] made reference to the "secret bank that rules the world". How secret is your bank in actual fact?
A: Well, here you are sitting inside it, so - so much for secrecy! But seriously- We have made it our goal to present a more diverse and more human picture of the BIS - among other things, in our Annual Report and through our internet presence. We want to become more approachable. Much of what we do here is public. The bulk of our research, for instance, is public. Obviously, there are some activities, also discussions, which by their nature are subject to confidentiality. But I can assure you that such business is less exciting than some people imagine - and as for ruling the world: hardly! In two years' time, we'll be celebrating the 90th anniversary of the Bank's founding. We want to use the occasion to better explain what we do here and how important our activities are.
"Someone presented a strong case you guys are criminals, so, sup?"
"No! We are in the building! We want to have an instagram account! Ha Ha! Most of our discussions are public! And we are only 90 years old so we cannot control the world."

Wow. Spoken so eloquently. Exactly as competent as you would expect for the GM of the bank of all banks with a lifelong resume in global finance. Doesn't he just exude confidence and perfectly and efficiently address the concerns laid out in the question like a stone-cold, remoreseless, mathmatically gifted sociopath, like all other people in those positions?
/s
This man has one of the highest positions in global finance, and is an absolute buffoon.
I mean... just like the Tweet, the General Manager of the fucking BIS is explaining how they don't know who uses cash bills.... It just makes my brain hurt. And for the part where he said "that will determine the rules and regulations on the use of CBDCs", he had to look down to read the line... Just...yikes.
Almost every other instance of him speaking is nonsense.
In my speculative opinion, he is likely a front for the people really writing the rules and potential fall guy to global finance just like I think SBF was to FTX. But that's neither here nor there.

BIS

The Bank for International Settlements is an international financial institution offering banking services for national central banks and a forum for discussing monetary and regulatory policies.
🦍 - They are a singlular global central bank for all the major national central banks around the world. It is the bank of banks.
Established in 1930, the BIS is owned by 63 central banks, representing countries from around the world that together account for about 95% of world GDP;
Bank of Algeria, Central Bank of Argentina, Reserve Bank of Australia, Central Bank of the Republic of Austria, National Bank of Belgium, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central Bank of Brazil, Bulgarian National Bank, Bank of Canada, Central Bank of Chile, People's Bank of China, Central Bank of Colombia, Croatian National Bank, Czech National Bank, Danmarks Nationalbank (Denmark), Bank of Estonia, European Central Bank, Bank of Finland, Bank of France, Deutsche Bundesbank (Germany), Bank of Greece, Hong Kong Monetary Authority, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Hungary), Central Bank of Iceland, Reserve Bank of India, Bank Indonesia, Central Bank of Ireland, Bank of Israel, Bank of Italy, Bank of Japan, Bank of Korea, Central Bank of Kuwait, Bank of Latvia, Bank of Lithuania, Central Bank of Luxembourg, Central Bank of Malaysia, Bank of Mexico, Bank Al-Maghrib (Central Bank of Morocco), Netherlands Bank, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia, Central Bank of Norway, Central Reserve Bank of Peru, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Philippines), Narodowy Bank Polski (Poland), Banco de Portugal, National Bank of Romania, Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Saudi Central Bank, National Bank of Serbia, Monetary Authority of Singapore, National Bank of Slovakia, Bank of Slovenia, South African Reserve Bank, Bank of Spain, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden), Swiss National Bank, Bank of Thailand, Central Bank of the Republic of Türkiye, Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates, Bank of England, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (United States) and State Bank of Vietnam
I've bolded bank names of nations recently mentioned by MSM due to financial and/or geopolitical issues, but as you can see, this is an extensive list

BIS Board of Directors;
The Board may have up to 18 members, including six ex officio Directors, comprising the central bank Governors of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. They may jointly appoint one other member of the nationality of one of their central banks. Eleven Governors of other member central banks may be elected to the Board.
François Villeroy de Galhau (Chair) Paris
Stefan Ingves (Vice-Chair) Stockholm
Andrew Bailey London
Roberto Campos Neto Brasilia
Shaktikanta Das Mumbai
Yi Gang Beijing
Thomas Jordan Zurich
Klaas Knot Amsterdam
Haruhiko Kuroda Tokyo
Christine Lagarde Frankfurt
Tiff Macklem Ottawa
Joachim Nagel Frankfurt am Main
Jerome H Powell Washington
Chang Yong Rhee Seoul
Victoria Rodríguez Ceja Mexico
Ignazio Visco Rome
John C Williams New York
Pierre Wunsch Brussels

BIS Management;
General Manager Agustin Carstens
Secretary General and Head of General Secretariat Luiz Awazu Pereira da Silva
Deputy General Manager Monica Ellis
Head of Banking Department Peter Zöllner
Head of Monetary and Economic Department Claudio Borio
Economic Adviser and Head of Research Hyun Song Shin
Head of BIS Innovation Hub Cecilia Skingsley
General Counsel Diego Devos
Deputy Head of Banking Department Luis Bengoechea
Deputy Secretary General Bertrand Legros
Deputy Head of Monetary and Economic Department Stijn Claessens
Chair, Financial Stability Institute Fernando Restoy
Head of Risk Management Jens Ulrich
Chief Representative for Asia and the Pacific Tao Zhang
Chief Representative for the Americas Alexandre Tombini

So what does the BIS do?
To pursue our mission, we provide central banks with:
  • a forum for dialogue and broad international cooperation,
  • a platform for responsible innovation and knowledge-sharing,
  • in-depth analysis and insights on core policy issues, and
  • sound and competitive financial services
...so....they talk?... about bank stuff? Wow. How enlightening and reassuring.

To deliver on our mission, our work is anchored in strong core values that shape the way in which we work.
  • We deliver value through excellence in performance.
  • We are committed to continuous improvement and innovation.
  • We act with integrity.
  • We foster a culture of diversity, inclusion, sustainability and social responsibility.
....fucking pardon fucking me? You "work hard" and you're "honest" and "responsible"? You effectively dictate the entire global banking system, why would you even need to state that? Oh yeah, right, because you're lying.

You would think it would be easy to find more specific information on the central bank of central banks... it isn't.
You would think this level of finance would be at least somewhat transparent... it isn't.
You would think the average person would have heard about the BIS... they haven't.

Here's a little fun tidbit of information from the ol' trustworthy BIS archives;
Under the BIS open archive rules, all records relating to the Bank's business and operational activities which are over 30 years old are available for consultation, with the exception of a limited number of records that remain private or confidential even after 30 years have elapsed.
"You can look at our stuff, but only after 30 years, and even then, only if we let you."
Wow. Really embodying your vision, guys. Nice work.

I don't want to suggest the BIS is comprised of people wearing robes, chanting around a fire and sacrificing livestock to the gods. They're just people. But those people are usually extremely wealthy sociopaths and hold a lot of power to influence global currencies, and by proxy, their governments and geopolitics. It's basically a big United Nations of shitty bankers, so logically speaking the probability that they all conspire together in the interest of maximizing profits is high. But again, that's just my opnion.
https://preview.redd.it/9w3yt78rjz2a1.png?width=438&format=png&auto=webp&s=33b96dfb62be76cd03f8642afaffaad4df909222
So, as of March 2022, the BIS apparently only has about $348 billion of assets. So why are they important?
The FED is to USD what the BIS is to money. All money. Every major currency, everywhere.

According to a 2019 report from the international monetary fund (IMF), there was an estimated $5.2 trillion worth of physical currency in circulation worldwide, which is only about 0.8% of the total money supply....It’s important to remember that this is just an estimate, as the true figure is likely much higher. After all, according to the same report, there was an estimated $80 trillion worth of financial assets in circulation...

You know how about a dozen or so (mostly) US banks own "work with" the FED? Well, in the same way, all the world's Central Banks own "work with" the BIS.
Fuck the balance sheet assets, the control is priceless.

I believe we need to add one more rung to the ladder;
hedge funds < banks < prime brokers < DTC < FED < BIS

Y final boss? How relate GME?

Because crypto.
That's it.
Really.
Firstly, let's remember what crypto is from a high level - it's a separation of money and state. It's both a currency and an asset that can't be controlled by one person or group. Real crypto, at its core, is decentralized. The moment commerce begins to accept crypto en masse as a currency, not just an asset, is the moment that legacy finance begins its inevitable and rapid death.
Crypto doesn't just threaten US markets. Or the USD. Or any specific currency. Or any specific government. Or a select few elite that could be sacrificed if necessary. It affects the entire. fucking. modern. monetary. system.
The financial fearlessness politicians and bankers have historically had is a warm blanket in the winter about to be ripped off. The BIS is the bank of banks for the whole world, and as such, they have the most to lose.
Secondly, do any of you know of a company that's perfectly positioned to capitalize on the projected ~$500 billion gaming industry in the next couple of years while also being situated at the forefront of the transition from fiat to crypto? A company that literally gets horny by satisfying its customers? With a competent management team and a clear vision? A ruthless pursuit of growth and development while perfectly embodying the true core values of secure, trustless and permissionless transactions?
Because I do.
submitted by onceuponanutt to Superstonk [link] [comments]

Apa nasehatmu untuk mereka yang terkena Fomo?

Gak bisa dipungkiri sepanjang tahun 2020-2021 banyak orang memulai investasinya karena influence sosial media. Beruntung bagi yang memulai investasinya lebih awal dan agak celaka bagi yang mulai investasinya di akhir-akhir tanpa tau konsekuensinya. Banyak kasus orang beli saham pake pinjol. Beli BTC, Altcoin pake utangan, uang arisan, bahkan sumbangan gereja.
my advice for you yang kena FOMO:
Miner musiman: Ketika crypto turun drastis di Januari-Februari 2022. Segera jual alat miningmu karena kamu harus menunggu 2024 untuk bisa panen. Karena ketika kamu beli mining rig sekarang harganya sudah naik berkali-kali lipat dari harga wajarnya. Perhitungkan kembali listrik yang harus kamu keluarkan, Gak BEP istilahnya. Contoh nyata Founder Rekeningku yang boncos bertahun-tahun karena nutupin biaya listrik dan beli mining rig kemahalan, baru panen akhir2 ini.

Robot trading: Royal Q , Forex dll. Robot trading is scam, jauhi sekarang sebelum terlambat. Janji manis seller Royal Q dan robot forex profit konisten itu gak ada buktinya 100% scam. Kisah nyata banyak yg bunuh diri karena tiba-tiba assetnya hilang diaveraging oleh robot. Jangan sampai kamu jadi korbannya

Trader Binomo, Binary option: Kamu yang baru memulai binary option, inilah saatnya dirimu keluar dari sistem jahat Judi 2.0 mungkin diawal kamu akan merasakan profit namun lama kelamaan akan susah dan tiba-tiba akun tersuspen tanpa sebab. Jelakanya gak ada yg bisa jamin akunmu balik karena Binomo dan lainnya jelas ilegal di Indonesia sehingga penyedia layanan tidak diketahui siapa.

Trader Saham musiman via signal telegram : Saham ada bull market dan bearish market, lengkapi dirimu dengan FA dan TA tambah bandarmology juga. Investing stock is about your move, bukan orang lain. Jadi pastikan semua keputusan investasi kamu yang buat bukan orang lain.

Trader Crypto: Bear market is coming, we need to understand what crypto still alive for next 4 Years(next halving) DCA still the best strategy for you. We will face the second Bull Run but dont fall for it to much, cause second bull run means next winter season.

note: I hope yall getting more profit and healthy. May the Force be with you
submitted by SecretBillionaireID to finansial [link] [comments]

This is not complaint advice

This is not complaint advice. This is a list of financial institution website resources that may or may not be useful.
Credit and thanks to:
note: suggestions, improvements, corrections are welcome

International/Multinational

International

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Caribbean

Europe

Middle East

North America

Oceania

South America

Countries/Regions

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

Åland Islands

Republic of Albania

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

Principality of American Samoa

Principality of Andorra

Anguilla

Antigua and Barbuda

Argentine Republic (Argentina)

Republic of Armenia

Aruba

Commonwealth of Australia

Republic of Austria

Azerbaijan Republic

Commonwealth of The Bahamas

Kingdom of Bahrain

People's Republic of Bangladesh

Barbados

Republic of Belarus

Kingdom of Belgium

Belize

Bermuda

Kingdom of Bhutan

Plurinational State of Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia–Herzegovina)

Federative Republic of Brazil

British Virgin Islands

Brunei Darussalam

Republic of Bulgaria

Kingdom of Cambodia (Kampuchea)

Canada

Cayman Islands

Republic of Chile

People's Republic of China

Republic of Colombia

Republic of Costa Rica

Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

Republic of Croatia

Republic of Cyprus

Czech Republic (Czechia/Bohemia)

Denmark

Republic of Djibouti

Commonwealth of Dominica

Dominican Republic

Republic of Ecuador

Arab Republic of Egypt

State of Eritrea

Republic of Estonia

Falkland Islands

Faroe Islands (Faroes/Faeroes)

Republic of Fiji

Republic of Finland

French Republic (France)

Gabonese Republic (Gabon)

Republic of Georgia

Federal Republic of Germany

Republic of Ghana

Gibraltar

Hellenic Republic (Greece)

Greenland

Guam

Republic of Guatemala

Republic of Guinea / République de Guinée

Republic of Haiti

Republic of Honduras

Hong Kong

Hungary

Iceland

Republic of India

Republic of Indonesia

Islamic Republic of Iran

Republic of Iraq / جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق / کۆماری عێراق / Komarî Êraq

Republic of Ireland

Isle of Man (Mann)

State of Israel

Italian Republic (Italy)

Jamaica

Japan

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Republic of Kazakhstan

Republic of Kenya

Republic of Kiribati

Republic of Kosovo

State of Kuwait

Republic of Latvia

Republic of Lebanon / Lebanese Republic

Principality of Liechtenstein

Republic of Lithuania

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Macao / Macau

Republic of Madagascar

Malaysia

Republic of Maldives

Republic of Malta

Republic of the Marshall Islands

Republic of Mauritius

United Mexican States (Mexico)

Federated States of Micronesia

Republic of Moldova

Mongolia

Kingdom of Morocco

Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma)

Republic of Nauru

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Kingdom of the Netherlands: Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands (Holland), and Sint Maarten / Koninkrijk der Nederlanden: Aruba, Kòrsou, Nederland, and Sint Maarten

New Zealand

Republic of Nicaragua

Federal Republic of Nigeria

Republic of North Macedonia

Kingdom of Norway

Sultanate of Oman

Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Republic of Palau

State of Palestine / Palestinian National Authority / السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية

Republic of Panama

Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Republic of Paraguay

Republic of Peru

Republic of the Philippines

Republic of Poland

Portuguese Republic (Portugal)

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

State of Qatar

Romania

Russia (Russian Federation)

Saint Lucia

Saint Vincent and The Grenadines

Independent State of Samoa

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Republic of Senegal

Republic of Serbia

Republic of Singapore

Slovak Republic (Slovakia)

Republic of Slovenia

Solomon Islands

Federal Republic of Somalia

Republic of South Africa

Republic of South Korea

Republic of South Sudan

Kingdom of Spain

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

Republic of Sudan

Kingdom of Sweden

Swiss Confederation (Switzerland)

Syrian Arab Republic (Syria)

Taiwan

Kingdom of Thailand

Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor)

Kingdom of Tonga

Trinidad and Tobago

Republic of Tunisia

Republic of Turkey

Tuvalu

Ukraine

United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom (Great Britain (England / Scotland / Wales) / Northern Ireland )

United States of America

Oriental Republic of the Uruguay

Republic of Vanuatu

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Virgin Islands of the United States (United States Virgin Islands)

Republic of Yemen

Additional Informational Resources

Also see:
submitted by jkhanlar to DRSyourGME [link] [comments]

BNB Chain Report: The State of Oracles

BNB Chain Report: The State of Oracles

Title

TL;DR

  • There are a few leading oracles in the space: Chainlink, Binance Oracle, Pyth Network, Band Protocol, and Uniswap (time-weighted average price) TWAP oracle for the special cases.
  • Frequency and latency are important but come with a price.
  • Mixing the best of both worlds and having a multi-oracle setup can help mitigate most of the risks associated with oracles.
  • The most used strategy to mitigate these risks is to use primary and secondary (fallback) oracles.
  • TWAP oracles are a special case and have to be handled with care.
  • The use of a privacy-preserving oracle to bridge the gap between privacy-enabled dApps and third-party data providers may be a new trend.
  • ZK Proofs using oracles may be the next big thing for cross-chain communication.

INTRODUCTION

As Web3 becomes more and more popular, the industry is seeing an increase in interest from both retail users and institutions. The trustless nature of blockchain technology allows multiple parties involved in a transaction to execute with 100% guarantees for each side once conditions are met. That creates enormous opportunities for new business cases to be developed. At the time of writing, decentralized finance’s (DeFi) total value locked (TVL) is $41 billion, according to DefiLlama,
https://preview.redd.it/cc7m3dir5j3a1.png?width=1348&format=png&auto=webp&s=d9dd7d6481172a3b2e5d2093a76b8403d114d657
Decentralized finance (DeFi) total value locked (TVL) (Source).
Blockchain oracles have been in the Web3 space since 2015, bridging the gap between deterministic siloed blockchains and probabilistic real-world data, allowing multiple use cases on the blockchain that could not have been possible otherwise. By design dApps are supposed to be trustless, always running in the way they were designed. Oracles are a critical piece of the infrastructure ensuring that data can be trusted before it reaches the blockchain. For the smart contracts that rely on external data, execution oracles have to be fast, reliable, decentralized, and resistant to any type of attack.
The purpose of this report is to dive deeper into oracles’ value, identify bottlenecks, explore innovations in the space, and provide recommendations on designing the best oracle setup to ensure optimal protocol performance with the most accurate data feeds in the shortest time.

What Is a Blockchain Oracle?

First, let’s do a quick recap on blockchain oracles. Oracles are decentralized applications that gather, validate, and deliver off-chain data to smart contracts on the blockchain. Similarly, they can do the same for delivering on-chain data to off-chain systems. Oracles are middleware connecting smart contracts on blockchains to off-chain data providers, sources and systems. Without oracles, smart contract applications would be limited to executing using only on-chain data.
If an oracle is corrupted, the correctness of the result of the execution of the smart contract will be compromised, potentially causing enormous losses. Blockchain oracles are a crucial part of the ecosystem.
Flash loan attacks, orchestrated oracle manipulation, and lengthy latency during extremely volatile times add up to the complexity of the infrastructure a dApp has to monitor when building its protocols.

Latency and Frequency

Latency and frequency are two key parameters that determine the performance of an oracle, and a formula can be more complex taking multiple parameters into consideration.
Latency is the time taken for an off-chain data feed to be available to use for a smart contract on-chain after triggering a condition that requires off-chain data with a transaction. Latency can also be used in the context of data freshness, i.e., how old the last data feed is prior to being published on-chain. The latency formula depends on multiple factors.
  • Block Time, which varies for different networks. ETH’s block time is 10-15 seconds, BNB Chain’s block time is 3 seconds, and SOL’s block time (via a Wormhole bridge) is 3-5 seconds;
  • Deviation Threshold or Heartbeat Threshold, whichever whatever happens first. For the most common cryptocurrency pairs such as BTC, ETH, and BNB the following parameters are set:
  • BTC: 0.1% / 1 min
  • ETH: 0.1% / 1 min
  • BNB: 1% / 1 min
Latency depends on both the underlying blockchain and oracle settings.
Frequency is how often the price is updated on a blockchain. In other words, how often the price update triggers (Deviation Threshold, Heartbeat Threshold or requester contract) publishing a new price. In a highly volatile market, the frequency of updates might be bigger because the triggering parameter such as the Deviation Threshold moves more often. The more frequent, almost real-time updates, especially during times of high volatility might contribute to network congestion if the blockchain throughput is low.

Oracle Relayers

A relayer is a general term for a third party that relays some information from one party to another. In the context of blockchain, a relayer submits a user’s transaction to the blockchain network on their behalf and pays the associated gas fee. Oracles usually operate across multiple blockchains and one option for oracle architecture to achieve cross-chain interoperability is to use a third-party relayer design to transmit data across blockchains.
https://preview.redd.it/p23yl51u5j3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=da2e1dc083dce7b9a7f4db5ad6924580bae22360
Relayers in oracle design can be used to bridge reported data to other blockchains (Source).
Some potential drawbacks to using relayer architecture are increased latency (users must wait for data to first be delivered to the primary blockchain, then they must wait for it to be bridged to a secondary blockchain or Layer2 network) and responsiveness, as the the relay model requires a set of highly available and incentivized third-party relayers to bridge oracle data from one chain to another.

Data Sources/Publishers

Data sources are third parties that have access to the information in real-time, and can be divided into various categories
  • CEXs and DEXs
  • OTC desks
  • Derivatives exchanges
  • Liquidity providers
  • Quantitative trading companies
  • Weather data collectors
  • Geolocation data collectors
  • Digital credential data providers

METHODOLOGY

A qualitative data collection approach has been used to further deep dive into the existing oracle landscape. A semi-structured interview for the case study was selected to gather information about oracle use by the ten largest DeFi protocols in the market accounting for hundreds of millions of TVL.
All Chainlink, Binance Oracle, Pyth Network and Band Protocol documentation in service of the above-mentioned protocols has been reviewed and analyzed as a part of the case study.

DATA COLLECTION

A semi-structured interview was selected to gather information about oracle use by various DeFi protocols in the market. Participants were selected based on their TVL and trading volume.
The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the bottlenecks in the industry, as well as discover new options and provide recommendations on oracle use.
The limitations of the case study: CTOs and lead engineers of the largest subset of DeFi protocols were selected to interview. Smaller DeFi lending and borrowing protocols and small DEXs were not included. The list of questions for the interview is provided below.
  1. What type of project do you have?
  2. Which data feeds do you use?
  3. Do you use data oracles? Which oracle partner have you selected?
  4. How do you use data feeds? How often do you request the data feed? How fast is your data feed? How many API calls do you make per month/per feed?
  5. Why have you selected this oracle / built your own? How long have you been working with them? What do you like the most about working with your oracle? What don’t you like about it? What would you like to improve?
  6. Have you ever experienced any problems with the oracles? How did you deal with it?

VALIDATION THROUGH CASE STUDIES

The results from the survey using keywords analysis and transcribed data provided insights on how DeFi protocols are using oracles, what the limitations and challenges are, and sheds the light on how DeFi protocols mitigate risks relative to the industry.
Key Findings:
  • Both low frequency and latency are named as main concerns for the oracles use by two thirds of the protocol interviews. Contrary to popular belief, protocols do not need the data available immediately, but they do want it fast. A lot indicated that price deviation and heartbeat were more important than frequent price updates.
  • Frequency has a direct relationship with the price deviation. The more often the price is updated the less deviation there is.
  • Push oracle latency comes with a price: the more frequently the price is updated on a chain the higher the gas fee. Most monetization models divide the price feed fee among dApps using it. Pull oracles also come with a price tag: whichever dApp requests the data update first has to pay the gas fee. The data is free for the rest of the protocols using that update.
  • Oracle reliability is the second most important factor.
  • The majority of protocols rely on multiple oracle setup, having two on average with three being the maximum. We might see more double oracle setups in the future as a risk mitigation strategy.
  • Some protocols have chosen to build their TWAP oracle by adding different modifications and maintaining more control and “having skin in the game.”

ORACLE TYPES

The very first blockchain oracle was centralized and served the industry well by supplying the necessary data to the blockchain. But as the industry matured, different oracle designs emerged to solve myriad issues with the centralized model. Analysis of documentation from a variety of oracle providers indicate that their designs vary depending on multiple parameters (eth source):
1. Number of Data Sources. Oracles that are connected to multiple sources and generate the average price from different sources are called aggregated price oracles. For example, Chainlink, Binance Oracle, Pyth Network, Band Protocol are all aggregated price feed oracles as compared to Uniswap which is a single source oracle.
2. Location of Data Source. Data sources for oracles can be on-chain or off-chain. Some of the largest off-chain data providers are the largest CEXsconnected through APIs to oracles nodes where data is pulled, validated, signed, and published on-chain. The largest on-chain data sources are DEXs such as PancakeSwap for BNB chain and Uniswap for Ethereum. DEXs provide prices based on the invariant curve exchange rate for cryptocurrency pairs.
3. Centralized or Decentralized. Oracles are classified as centralized or decentralized depending on their trust model and consensus mechanism. One of the very first oracles in the space on Ethereum called Provable (formerly Oraclize) is a centralized oracle provider but now most are decentralized. .
4. Push or Pull. Oracles that automatically update cryptocurrency prices on chain are called push oracles and oracles that need an active request to update cryptocurrency prices are called pull oracles. Push oracles publish prices on-chain when triggered by one of two indicators:
Deviation Threshold: If the cryptocurrency price is different from the previous price by more than 0.1% -1% (varies for different pairs) then the push oracle is activated to update the price on-chain.
Heartbeat Threshold: If the cryptocurrency price doesn’t change within 1-10 minutes (depending on the parameters set) then the push oracle is activated to update the price on-chain.
5. Type of Data Source. Oracles can specialize in many types of data including cryptocurrency prices, commodities prices, FX prices, trade, weather, sports outcomes and statistics, identity, DNS lookups, and more.

TWAP ORACLES

While most of the oracles in the space are off-chain and decentralized, time-weighted average price (TWAP) oracles are different. TWAP oracles give the average price of a token for a determined period of time versus oracles that provide mean or weighted average prices aggregated from multiple data sources at a given moment. TWAP oracles are based on DEX prices and use the exchange rate of token A to token B as the price-determining factor. DEXs are the only source of truth for the price of the tokens that are not listed and traded on larger exchanges and there are no other providers available. For example, Uniswap TWAP V2.
https://preview.redd.it/3lxrdy5w5j3a1.png?width=1360&format=png&auto=webp&s=db4f9ac3a7893e7815ce7a528790d77eda7f6fab
The time-weighted average price (TWAP) calculation methodology supported by the Uniswap V2 automatic market maker (AMM) (Source).
A TWAP oracle has several limitations. It is a lagging indicator, so if a cryptocurrency price is volatile, the TWAP will not accurately reflect the price, which results in a higher risk of under-collateralization. TWAP oracles pull their price data from a single source only, making it more likely that low-cap asset prices off of a particular DEX are not representative of the broader market price. TWAP oracles do not provide data about off-chain trading pairs and they are not a scalable solution that mirrors the design of the underlying protocols that they service.
That said, TWAP oracles do have an unspoken benefit: they are the only source of price feeds for high-risk, low-cap tokens. Protocols that are built around isolated trading low cap tokens benefit from having access to a TWAP oracle but, as mentioned previously, the data in question is subject to natural (or malicious) market manipulation and must be used with caution.
At the time of the writing, Uniswap TWAP oracle team was working on researching on other improvements such as Time Weight Median Price (TWMP), wide-range liquidity, and limit orders to be introduced to Uniswap TWAP v.3.
https://preview.redd.it/nhgyy4hy5j3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=e2d5922fcf1e85d95996819b7d015c2914e41873
Uniswap time weighted average price (TWAP) oracle total value secured (TVS) November 2022 (Source).

ORACLES OVERVIEW

Currently, there are four major market participants in the oracle space:

Oracle Type Features Key Highlights
Chainlink Decentralized off-chain. Push and pull. Price feeds.200+ real estate, sports, crypto prices, equities, identity, Proof of reserve. VRF RNG 1500 dApps across 15 blockchains with more than 360M price updates per month. A set of features that expands beyond standard price feeds
Binance Oracle Decentralized off-chain. Push. 40+ crypto prices. VRF RNG planned (gas). Ten new projects joined closed beta testnet since launch including a few largest on-chain TVL. Increased security MPC, the private keyshare to sign a transaction. Optimized for speed using white labels off-chain data sources only. Space ID integration, the largest domain name provider on BNB Chain.
Pyth Network Decentralized off-chain. Pull. Over 90 cryptocurrencies, equities, FX, and metal. 70+ projects are using Pyth after a few months from the mainnet. 80+ data publishers are working with Pyth Access to exclusive data feeds.
Band Protocol Decentralized off-chain. Push. 175+ cryptocurrencies.40 FX and commodities. VRF/RNG. Runs on its own network on Cosmos, cross-chain through Cosmos IBC relayers. Has the infrastructure to add a new symbol quickly. Can work with custom requests.

Chainlink

https://preview.redd.it/9xaerfrpxj3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=9c0ea03eba900034ee4a3e676dd8bceb39966816
Chainlink total value secured (TVS) (Source).
Chainlink is one of the largest oracle solutions in the market. It was established in 2017 and has been a source of truth for over 1500 dApps across 15 blockchains. At the time of this writing, the Total Value Secured by Chainlink was approximately $9.4 billion.
Chainlink is an off-chain decentralized oracle network that serves over 200 pairs on Ethereum and more than 100 pairs on the BNB chain. Chainlink data expands far outside of crypto pricing offerings and includes weather data, sports data, FX and commodities.
Chainlink has additional features such as data automation, VRF/RNG, Proof of Reserve, NFT price feeds, and Cross-chain interoperability protocol. Also, dApps can access any external data through AnyAPI adaptors.

Pyth Network

https://preview.redd.it/qyxm4t5sxj3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=80771161353593dc35632f8e2b85ef89cdf1f376
Pyth Network total value secured (TVS) (Source).
Pyth Network was launched in 2021 and is the first oracle to popularize the pull mechanism for price feed updates. Currently, more than 70 projects are deployed to use Pyth Network which uses its own network to make sure the underlying blockchain does not affect the reliability of the oracle and that it is always running.
Pyth Network is a decentralized off-chain aggregate price oracle that publishes data off-chain 2-3 times per second for everyone to read it. That data is published on-chain only after the request for a price contract has been made. The gas fee is paid by whoever first called the price update and it is available for the rest to use cost-free once on-chain. End-users of Pyth data can elect to pay data fees to gain protection against a potential oracle failure.
Pyth Network uses a weighted average aggregate price coming from multiple sources, some of them exclusive. Pyth Data Providers are fully transparent and available to read.

Binance Oracle

Binance Oracle was launched in October 2022 after being in design and production for more than nine months. Binance Oracle has implemented a few modifications to create more resilient and faster push oracles. At the time of this writing, Binance Oracle is deployed to the beta testnet and has onboarded its first customers.
A few significant improvements to Binance’s oracle design were added to make the price feeds faster and more secure:
  • Multi-Party Computation Threshold Signature Scheme. Used by institutional custodians Binance Oracle uses the most secure cryptography for data correctness. Multiple distributed nodes participate in the data signing process, ensuring the safety of the private key.
  • Whitelabeled and Hand-Selected Data Providers. By highly curating data providers, Binance oracle aims to ensure the quality and consistency of data, positioning itself somewhere between Chainlink’s on-chain and off-chain providers and Pyth’s 70 off-chain sources.
  • Customized and Open Providers. Based on rapid development efficiency and quick development turnaround, customized data support is available upon request. Binance Oracle aims to enable more projects to use stable oracle services.

Band Protocol

https://preview.redd.it/gpi2b5ztxj3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=9bb3604b625f92127d13503dc572badaf2743ee5
Band Protocol’s total value secured (TVS) (Source).
Band Protocol is a Cosmos-based oracle supporting 20 blockchains through the inter-blockchain protocol (IBC), a scalable oracle that has its own network to process all data. Band Protocol is also a decentralized off-chain aggregator oracle supporting more than 90 crypto symbols and 12 forex trading pairs.
Band Protocol has built its own relayer network and is able to ensure fast cross-chain communication to publish data to the different blockchains using the IBC bridge.

Other Oracle Designs: API3

API3 is moving from the third-party oracle model to the first-party data providers directly on-chain. An off-chain first-party oracle connects data from any API to a smart contract through Airnode. DAO-governed, Airnode is Web3 middleware that connects any web API directly to any blockchain application. Airnodes are a piece of cloud service infrastructure that allow data providers to deploy their existing Web2 API onto the blockchain, creating what API3 calls a dAPI (Decentralized API).
https://preview.redd.it/ehejymdwxj3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=90ffeb8667ec1fa3cc985b4b6c3e2fe20b2e8c75
Airnode Web3 middleware connects any web API directly to any blockchain application (Source).
The API3 team manages the endpoints and a multi-sig mechanism is used for extra security signing transactions. API3 can also provide individual data sets for users that require full control over the curation of the data feeds they use.

Other Oracles Designs: Umbrella Network

Umbrella is a Layer2 oracle built on a sidechain. Umbrella solves the scalability problem in oracles by leveraging a Layer2 solution and utilizes Merkle trees for batching transactions to save on gas fees.

https://preview.redd.it/l8yfhrl0yj3a1.png?width=1254&format=png&auto=webp&s=e637870f54ae450272bc7d24847120c2c5965139
Umbrella leverages a Layer2 solution and utilizes Merkle trees for batching transactions (Source).

NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS

Blockchain oracles have been live since 2015 – the same year that Ethereum smart contracts were introduced – and have since gone through many iterations and improvements. A few new emerging trends in oracle use have been identified both during analyzing case studies and following emerging technologies.

Privacy, ZK Proofs, and Oracles

Privacy enabling zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP) are hot topics that have emerged over the course of 2021-2022, solving inherent blockchain problems like lack of confidentiality and inability to control private data. Blockchain oracles are no exception to this trend. The industry is seeking a solution to reveal and verify the truth without disclosing private information.
For example, Chainlink is working on a ZKP-based oracle solution called DECO, a privacy-preserving oracle protocol developed at Cornell University and later acquired by Chainlink. Oracle nodes can prove facts about data sourced from trusted servers without revealing the data on-chain, while also proving the source of the data since the TLS chain of custody is maintained.
One of DECO’s applications is a verifiable credential oracle that acts as a source of truth for biometric data and allows selective data disclosure paired with digital identity.

https://preview.redd.it/00b0m3y2yj3a1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=868d2c0539ebf9b5338b7b155af946d30d485d8e
Oracle nodes can prove facts about data sourced from trusted servers without revealing the data on-chain.

ZK Cross Chain Messaging Through Oracle Relayers

For the average Web3 user the closest understanding of oracle is the bridge between Web2 real-world data and Web3 dApps. However, oracles can not only act as price or weather data feed providers but also can be used as a source of truth for inter-blockchain messaging itself.
A few prospective solutions are working on a ZK proof for cross-chain messaging where oracles act as a core part of the middleware to prove and verify that the data transmitted is true and can be trusted. An oracle node generates the ZK proof for the state of the smart contract so that data can be transferred across blockchains.

Latency Is Dead, Long Live Latency

The fastest available data on-chain is necessary and widely used in the DeFi world however, DEX interviews revealed that there is no actual demand for the real-time speed of pushing price feeds – it has to be fast, but it doesn’t have to be ultra-fast. There are two different approaches to data delivery speed with respect to pull oracles:
  • Binance Oracle uses hand-selected decentralized data providers and has made architecture improvements (such as hot servers, master-slave architecture, and geographically proximal servers) to ensure speed when delivering data on-chain.
  • Pyth Network proposed the solution to solve this problem and went live with a pull oracle at the end of 2021. Chainlink followed by launching a low latency pull oracle in November 2022.
It is important to keep in mind that oracle’s minimum latency is still a blockchain’s block time to finality when transactions are finalized, which will probably remain the primary limitation to data delivery speed.

Modifications to TWAP

Some protocols developed their own implementations of TWAP oracles with added features such as using moving averages to smooth abrupt price movements. Others have built custom pools as an oracle on the AMM/DEX. TWAP oracles might see increased demand in the future if markets move towards decentralized exchanges, which may be more likely after recent market volatility in November 2022.

CONCLUSION

Oracles are critical middleware infrastructure that enable myriad use cases for the blockchain. Competition amongst legacy oracle providers has pushed them to constantly innovate, add resiliency to the oracle ecosystem, and drive adoption for their services in new and better ways. Binance Oracle’s entrance into the space introduces a new player with enhanced speed and security.
While capital continues to flow to DEXs, the collapse of crypto markets in November 2022 may delay the adoption of further advances in oracle development such as verified credentials and ZK cross chain messaging. Nevertheless, oracle innovation continues to unfold, bringing ever more utility to blockchain over time.

REFERENCES

  1. https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/oracles/
  2. https://medium.com/the-capital/deco-privacy-preserving-oracles-2620b80b3ffd
  3. https://chain.link/developer-resources
  4. https://research.thetie.io/blockchain-oracle-comparison/
  5. https://oracle.binance.com/en
  6. https://docs.pyth.network/how-pyth-works
  7. https://docs.bandchain.org/band-standard-dataset/supported-blockchains.html#
  8. https://api3.org/airnode
  9. https://uniswap.org/blog/uniswap-v3-oracles

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STRATEGY PEMULA PROFIT 99.9999 PERSEN. MASTERNYA MASTER BARU UNJUK GIGI

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